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The transition happens each time the CPU switches from user to kernel mode (and vice versa) and the number of cycles it requires is large compared to an individual API call. If the runtime sent each API call to the driver when it was invoked, every API call would incur the cost of a mode transition.

Instead, the command buffer is a runtime optimization designed to reduce the effective cost of the mode transition. The command buffer queues many driver commands in preparation for a single mode transition. When the runtime adds a command to the command buffer, control is returned to the application. A profiler has no way of knowing that the driver commands have probably not even been sent to the driver yet. As a result, the numbers returned by an off-the-shelf instrumenting profiler are misleading since it measures the runtime work but not the associated driver work.

Using the render sequence from example 2, here are some typical timing measurements that illustrate the magnitude of a mode transition. Assuming that Official Site Wholesale China casual women shoes use cheap girl shoes sport women shoes Outlet Cheap Authentic Discount Newest L5kuCl
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calls do not cause a mode transition, an off-the-shelf instrumenting profiler could return results similar to these:

Each of these numbers are the amount of time it takes for the runtime to add these calls to the command buffer. Since there is no mode transition, the driver has not done any work yet. The profiler results are accurate, but they do not measure all of the work that the render sequence will eventually cause the CPU to perform.

Now, look at what happens for the same example when a mode transition occurs. This time, assume SetTexture and Buy Online Authentic Fluorescent shoes colorful LED street dance lovers boys and girls recreational sandals Cheap Sale 2018 New Sale Huge Surprise cMts0oYda
cause a mode transition. Once again, an off-the-shelf instrumenting profiler could return results similar to these:

The time measured for SetTexture is about the same, however, the dramatic increase in the amount of time spent in DrawPrimitive is due to the mode transition. Here's what is happening:

Summarizing the results, you see:

Just like the measurement for DrawPrimitive without the mode transition (900 cycles), the measurement for DrawPrimitive with the mode transition (947,950 cycles) is accurate but useless in terms of budgeting CPU work. The result contains the correct runtime work, the driver work for SetTexture , the driver work for any commands that preceded SetTexture , and two mode transitions. However, the measurement is missing the DrawPrimitive driver work.

A mode transition could happen in response to any call. It depends on what was previously in the command buffer. You need to control the mode transition to understand how much CPU work (runtime and driver) is associated with each call. To do that, you need a mechanism for controlling the command buffer and the timing of the mode transition.

_unless

attribute?

A useful method that is related to attributes is the attribute? method. This method will check for the existence of an attribute, so that processing can be done in an attributes file or recipe, but only if a specific attribute exists.

Using attribute?() in an attributes file:

Using attribute?() in a recipe:

Recipes

A recipe is the most fundamental configuration element within the organization. A recipe:

An attribute can be defined in a cookbook (or a recipe) and then used to override the default settings on a node. When a cookbook is loaded during a chef-client run, these attributes are compared to the attributes that are already present on the node. Attributes that are defined in attribute files are first loaded according to cookbook order. For each cookbook, attributes in the file are loaded first, and then additional attribute files (if present) are loaded in lexical sort order. When the cookbook attributes take precedence over the default attributes, the chef-client will apply those new settings and values during the chef-client run on the node.

Roles

A role is a way to define certain patterns and processes that exist across nodes in an organization as belonging to a single job function. Each role consists of zero (or more) attributes and a run-list. Each node can have zero (or more) roles assigned to it. When a role is run against a node, the configuration details of that node are compared against the attributes of the role, and then the contents of that role’s run-list are applied to the node’s configuration details. When a chef-client runs, it merges its own attributes and run-lists with those contained within each assigned role.

An attribute can be defined in a role and then used to override the default settings on a node. When a role is applied during a chef-client run, these attributes are compared to the attributes that are already present on the node. When the role attributes take precedence over the default attributes, the chef-client will apply those new settings and values during the chef-client run on the node.

A role attribute can only be set to be a default attribute or an override attribute. A role attribute cannot be set to be a normal attribute. Use the and methods in the Ruby DSL file or the and hashes in a JSON data file.

Environments

An environment is a way to map an organization’s real-life workflow to what can be configured and managed when using Chef server. Every organization begins with a single environment called the environment, which cannot be modified (or deleted). Additional environments can be created to reflect each organization’s patterns and workflow. For example, creating , , , and environments. Generally, an environment is also associated with one (or more) cookbook versions.

An attribute can be defined in an environment and then used to override the default settings on a node. When an environment is applied during a chef-client run, these attributes are compared to the attributes that are already present on the node. When the environment attributes take precedence over the default attributes, the chef-client will apply those new settings and values during the chef-client run on the node.

An environment attribute can only be set to be a default attribute or an override attribute. An environment attribute cannot be set to be a attribute. Use the and methods in the Ruby DSL file or the and hashes in a JSON data file.

Attributes are always applied by the chef-client in the following order:

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